Tag Archives: Security

Implementing Exchange Online Protection for on-premises Exchange Part I

With the ongoing growing number of (successful) phishing attacks entering the organization via email, there’s an increasing demand for a rock-solid message hygiene solution. In my opinion there are very little on-premises solutions that do a great job, and very little cloud solutions. Google has a great message hygiene solution, but Microsoft’s Exchange Online Protection (EOP) is getting better and better each year. Not surprisingly since both Google and Microsoft can invest a tremendous amount of R&D money in their message hygiene solution.

A lot of my on-premises customers are currently looking at Exchange Online Protection (EOP) and are thinking about implementing EOP on a short term. In this blogpost I will focus on implementing EOP when using on-premises Exchange server (2010 or higher). An existing implementation can look something like this:

Exchange OnPremises

There’s an Exchange mailbox server on-premises, and in the organization’s DMZ there’s a mail relay server. In my environment this is an Exchange Edge Transport server, but this can be any SMTP server of course. MX records are pointing to the Edge Transport Server in the DMZ, the Internet Send Connector is using the Edge Transport Server as the source transport server. Between the Mailbox server and the Edge Transport server there’s an Edge Synchronization running to keep the Edge Transport server up-to-date with internal information.

The MX record here is pointing to smtphost.exchange2019.nl (you can guess the version I’m using 😊) and this is also the outbound server. The SPF record is pretty simple in this scenario since there’s only one egress point for my email, so the record is V=spf1 ip4:176.62.196.247 -all.

At this point there’s no DKIM signing or verification (not available in on-premises Exchange) and there’s also no DMARC record.

Exchange Online Protection

Exchange Online Protection is Microsoft message hygiene solution. Before EOP it was called Forefront Online Protection for Exchange (FOPE). The original version was created by FrontBridge, which was acquired by Microsoft in 2005.

You can get a separate EOP subscription, but EOP is automatically part of any Exchange Online subscription, so you must do the math to figure out the best value for money.

EOP can be used for inbound mail and for outbound mail. To implement EOP for inbound mail it’s just a matter of changing the MX records so that they point to EOP instead of your on-premises mail servers. For outbound mail you have to change the Internet Send Connector to use EOP as a smart host. All outbound email will then be forwarded to EOP and delivered to the intended recipients by EOP.

In my lab environment I have been working with Edge Transport servers since the beginning. From a message hygiene perspective, they do a great job when it comes to connection filtering, but other than that message hygiene is so-so.
The desired configuration with Exchange Online Protection is as follows:

Exchange 2019 EOP

After signing-up for Exchange Online Protection you must configure it. The first step is to configure a new domain in the Microsoft 365 Admin Center. When the domain is added and validated it will automatically appear in Exchange Online Protection as an Accepted Domain.

When you click on the domain in the Admin Center it will open another window with the appropriate DNS settings for this domain as shown in the following screenshot (click to enlarge):

eop_domain

Directory Synchronization

It is a Microsoft recommendation to implement directory synchronization using Azure AD Connect when implementing Exchange Online Protection. If you do, all mailboxes in the on-premises Exchange environment are known in EOP as contacts and can be individually managed in EOP.

Inbound mail flow

Before the MX record can be changed to EOP, a Send Connector should be created from EOP to the on-premises Exchange server. This connection is encrypted using TLS, so a 3rd party certificate is recommended.

To create Send Connector from EOP to your on-premises Exchange environment, open the Exchange Admin Center (in Office 365), select mail flow and click connectors. If this is a new EOP environment, you should see nothing.

Click the + icon to add a new connector and in the additional window select Office 365 in the From: dropdown box and select Your organization’s email server in the To: dropdown box as shown in the following screenshot (click to enlarge):

add-eop-send-connector

Click Next to continue. In the new Connector windows, give the new connector a name like “EOP to your organization” and click Next to continue. In the following window you have to select when to use this connector. Leave the default radio button on “For email messages sent to all accepted domains in your organization” and click Next to continue. In the next window, specify the name of the host where EOP should deliver all messages to. In my environment this is my Edge Transport server so I enter the FQDN smtphost.exchange2019.nl as shown in the following screenshot (click to enlarge):

EOP-Route

Click Next to continue. The following window is about TLS. The default is to enforce TLS and use certificates from a valid third-party CA. Accept the defaults and click Next to continue. The connector is now fully configured, review all settings and click Next to create the connector.

When the connector is created it should be validated. This is to ensure the connector is working as expected and you should do this before making the MX change. Use the + icon to add an email address in the on-premises Exchange environment and click Validate. If the connector is configured correctly, the validation should be successful and the email address you’ve entered will have received a validation message (click to enlarge)

EOP-Validate

The connector is now ready for use. After changing the MX record in public DNS to the FQDN as found in the Office 365 Admin Center (which is something like yourdomain-com.mail.protection.outlook.com) inbound mail will now be protected by Exchange Online Protection.

When sending an email from Gmail to my Exchange environment and checking the header of the received message it is clearly visible that mail flow is now via Exchange Online Protection (click to enlarge):

eop-headers

Summary

In this blogpost I’ve shown you how to implement Exchange Online Protection as a message hygiene solution in front of your on-premises Exchange environment. The process will be similar if you are using a different mail solution but want to implement EOP before your solution.
In part II I will explain the steps when you want to implement EOP for outbound messaging.

Azure AD and Office 365 Password writeback

My previous blogpost was about the Self Service Password Reset (SSPR). A nice feature for cloud identities, but this doesn’t work if you have synchronized identities or federated identities. These are managed in your on-premises Active Directory, so for SSPR to work you need to implement a password writeback solution.

Luckily this feature is available, but the standard Office 365 licenses do not include password writeback functionality. You this you need an Azure AD Premium P1 or Azure AD Premium P2 license. Enterprise Mobility + Security (EMS) E3 does include Azure AD Premium P1, EMS E5 does include Azure AD Premium P2.

To implement password writeback, you need to have SSPR up-and-running. To configure password writeback you have to run the Azure AD Connect wizard.

Note. Make sure you always have the latest version of Azure AD Connect running. Even better, use the auto update feature of Azure AD Connect to make sure you’re up-to-date. At the time of writing the latest version of Azure AD Connect was 1.1.882.0 (as of Sept. 8, 2018).

Start the Azure AD Connect wizard and select the Customize Synchronization Options. Follow the wizard until you reach the Optional Features. Check the Password Writeback option as shown in the screenshot below and click Next to continue.

optional_features

Follow the wizard until the configuration is complete and click Exit to finish the wizard and store the new configuration.
The service account that’s used by Azure AD Connect needs the appropriate permissions in your on-premises Active Directory to store the new password that has been set in Azure AD.
To find out which service account is used by Azure AD Connect, start Azure AD Connect and select View Current Configuration and check the account as shown in the following screenshot:

View_Current_Configuration

The following permissions need to be granted to the service account on either the domain object, or on an OU if you want to scope the permissions:

  • Reset password
  • Change password
  • Write permissions on lockoutTime
  • Write permissions on pwdLastSet

Open Active Directory and Computers, enable Advanced Features, select the properties of the domain, click on Security, click on Advanced and click Add.

Select the service account that was retrieved earlier under Principal and in the applies to dropdown box select Descendent User Objects. Check the following options:

  • Reset password
  • Change password
  • Write lockoutTime (scroll down)
  • Write pwdLastSet (scroll down)

Click on OK to apply the changes to Active Directory and close any following pop-up boxes.

Permission_Entry

To test the password write back option, follow the same procedure as in the SSPR blogpost. After you have changed your password, it is written back to your on-premises Active Directory and the following event is written to the eventlog of the Azure AD Connect server.

EventID_31001

Summary

In this blogpost I’ve shown you how to implement password writeback in your synchronized Azure AD environment. One prerequisite is that you need to have Self Service Password Reset implemented, and you need to have an Azure AD Premium P1 or Azure AD Premium P2.

Self Service Password Reset in Office 365

One option, not only for security, but also for user convenience is Self Service Password Reset (SSPR). This feature enables cloud users to reset their own passwords in Azure Active Directory, and this way they don’t have to contact the local IT staff with reset password questions.

Note. For Self Service Password Reset you need an additional Azure AD Basic license.

To enable Self Service Password Reset, logon to the Azure Portal (https://portal.azure.com) as a Global Administrator. Select Azure Active Directory, select Password Reset and in the actions pane, select Selected or All. Using the Selected option, you can enable SSPR only to member of the security group SSPRSecurityGroupUsers for a more targeted approach. Of course, if you want to enable SSPR for all your users you should select the All option.

Password-Reset-Selected

Click Save to store your selection. Click the second option Authentication Methods to select the number of methods available to your users. In my example, I’m going to select just one, and options I select are Email and Mobile Phone.

Methods_Available

Click Save to continue. The last step is to configure the registration. This is to require users to register when signing in, and the number of days the users are asked to re-confirm their authentication information, as shown in the following screenshot:

password-reset-registration

You’re all set now.

When a (new) user logs on now, he is presented with a pop-up, asking for verification methods. As configured earlier the authentication phone and authentication email is used. The mobile phone number that’s presented here was configured earlier in Azure Active Directory when provisioning the user. Click Verify and you’ll receive a text message with a verification code.

You can chose an email address for authentication purposes, as long as it’s not an email address in your own tenant. Follow the wizard when you click Set it up now as shown in the following screenshot.

dont-lose-access

To test the SSPR, use the browser van navigate to https://passwordreset.microsoftonline.com/, enter your userID (UPN) and enter the CAPTCHA code.

You can choose to send an email to your verification account, send a text message to your mobile phone (see screenshot below) or have Microsoft call you.

Get-Back-Into-Your-Account

Enter your phone number (the phone number that’s also registered in Azure AD) and within seconds you’ll receive a verification text message. After entering this code you can enter a new password, and with this new password you can login again.

As a bonus you’ll receive an email that you password has been changed.

Summary

In this blogpost I’ve shown you how to implement the Self Service Password Reset (SSRP), a feature that’s available in the default Office 365 Enterprise licenses, so no additional Azure AD licenses are needed. You can choose to implement text messages or email messages (as shown in this blogpost) but you can also implement additional security questions.

Now this is a nice solution for cloud identities, but it does not work for synced identities or federated identities. For this to work you need to implement password write-back, a nice topic for the next blog 😊

Microsoft Secure Score – Improve security of your tenant

During Ignite 2018 in Orlando there was a lot of focus on security in Office 365 and Azure Active Directory. That makes sense, a cloud solution is accessible for everyone. Not only your own internal users, but also the bad guys that are out for your data, accounts or money. And not only your user accounts are at risk, your admin accounts even more, and when losing your admin accounts, you are pretty much out of business.

It was shocking to hear that there are 6,000 compromised admin accounts each month, and only 4% of all admin accounts have MFA enabled. And the number of compromised admin accounts decreases with 99,9% with MFA enabled. Go figure!

Other issues that impact security negatively is weak passwords. Everybody knows about brute force attacks, but ever heard of password spray attacks? Based on user lists and (default) weak passwords all combinations of usernames and passwords are tried, without you as an admin even knowing what’s going on.

The list with security issues is impressive…. Weak (legacy) authentication, no password changes, phishing attacks, spoofing, auto-forwarding, too many global admins, permissions and roles, unmanaged devices, etc. etc.

Continue reading Microsoft Secure Score – Improve security of your tenant

Ignite 2018 – Azure AD and security sessions

A little later than originally planned because of an unexpected visit of the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston on my way…. In my previous postings I blogged about the start of the conference and some of the Exchange sessions I attended in the first two days. Now how much I do love Exchange, most of my clients are moving towards Office 365 and Exchange Online, so what else is important here?

Yes, authentication! Azure Active Directory, Identity and Access Management and security around these solutions. And this happens to be important for Exchange and Exchange Online as well, so….

Secure access to Office 365/Azure Active Directory with new features in AD FS in Windows Server 2019 and Azure AD Password Protection

Sessions “BRK3226 – Secure access to Office 365/Azure Active Directory with new features in AD FS in Windows Server 2019 and Azure AD Password Protection” is all about authentication in Azure AD. It explains the traditional password hash sync as well as the ADFS options (more that 71 million users are actively using ADFS). But there are also 1.29 billion authentications blocked in August 2018 and 81% of all security breaches are because of weak, default or stolen passwords.

securing-resources

Common passwords used in (Azure) AD are Password, Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, 2018, 1234, your favorite football team etc. And these in turn are used in password spray attacks! Also vulnerable are passwords where number and letters are changed, for example “I” becomes “!”, “O” becomes “0” etc. And now you wonder, how many of my users are doing this? Password protection in Azure AD also includes normalization of the password, so these changes are automatically blocked. The good thing is, Azure AD password protection is coming to on-premises AD as well!

You can find the presentation on Youtube https://youtu.be/DC4cyF_JEgw and the presentation can be found here https://mediusprodstatic.studios.ms/presentations/Ignite2018/BRK3226.pptx

Azure Active Directory best practices from around the world

The title of the session was renamed to “Azure AD: Do’s and Don’ts”, but this is a more ‘notes from the field’ session with a lot of practical information around Azure AD, legacy authentication, modern authentication, Hybrid Azure AD Joine (HAADJ, I hate 3 letter acronyms, let alone 5 letter versions 😊) and what to do to get a better and more safe authentication experience.

legacy-authentication

Interesting in this presentation is that is also discusses what step you need to take to move from legacy authentication to modern authentication, and also the pitfalls you might encounter, including links to more information (found in the presentation).

associating-devices

You can see the presentation on Youtube https://youtu.be/wGk0J4z90GI and you can find the presentation here https://mediusprodstatic.studios.ms/presentations/Ignite2018/BRK3408.pptx

Scott Schnoll’s Exchange and Office 365 tips and tricks

I don’t know how many times Scott Schnoll has delivered this session, but it still is an awesome session and contains so much practical information around Exchange and nowadays Exchange Online.

scott-schnoll

I tried to make some pictures with Office Lens, but I think the color of the slides and text are not identified correctly so they are horrible. The slides aren’t available (yet), so you have to check the presentation on Youtube: https://youtu.be/0WNMX8EKYZk

Topics include anti-virus exclusions, DMARC enhancements, decommission on-premises Exchange in (or after) hybrid, changes to EOP IP ranges, migrating DL’s to Office 365 (including a script to do so), a license administrator in Office 365 (preview), DLP and credit card numbers and Mail Flow Insights, a new tool/dashboard that is currently being developed. Scott is doing a demo on this at the end of his presentation. Very cool, very promising, very useful!

Summary

So, after 5 days (well, four and a half days) we can say it was a very successful event. It is so huge, approx. 30,000 attendees from 5,000 organizations. So many sessions, break-out, theatre, workshop, hands-on, almost too much. And the sheer size of the location, I guess one can walk between 6 and 7 miles every day between the various locations. Would I go again? Sure, next year, again in Orlando, November 4-8. Hope to see you there!

More information/sessions

And some more interesting sessions to view online….

BRK2407 – Windows 10 and Office 365 ProPlus lifecycle and servicing update (CONDENSED)

https://mediusprodstatic.studios.ms/presentations/Ignite2018/BRK2407.pptx  https://youtu.be/t9Bs55czc1E

BRK3234 – An IT pros guide to Open ID Connect, OAuth 2.0 with the V1 and V2 Azure Active Directory endpoints (very informative, but not available online yet I’m afraid)

BRK3397 – Protect and control your sensitive emails with Office 365 Message Encryption

https://mediusprodstatic.studios.ms/presentations/Ignite2018/BRK3397.pptx

https://youtu.be/Ld4b4pFua0g

BRK3408 – Azure Active Directory best practices from around the world

https://mediusprodstatic.studios.ms/presentations/Ignite2018/BRK3226.pptx

https://youtu.be/wGk0J4z90GI

BRK3146 – What’s amazing and new in calendaring in Outlook!

https://youtu.be/-ZrNTylawOA

THR3024 – How to add MFA to your Exchange Online/on-premises mailboxes in 20 minutes or less

https://youtu.be/7hoEmEwV8Rk

BRK3081 – Implementing a modern network architecture to get the most out of Office 365

https://youtu.be/FGMzS_MjuPY

BRK3145 – Deploying Outlook mobile securely in the enterprise

https://youtu.be/4mHlxdJMh1Q

THR3036 – Azure Active Directory hybrid identity and banned password detection

https://youtu.be/kuVkfIiapI4